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SECTION VII. IMPROVEMENTS
IMPROVEMENTS

The Applicant shall arrange, perform or contract and pay for all services and material needed for the installation of municipal services, including storm drains, water supply, and fire alarm and their appurtenances and for the construction of streets, including roadbed preparation, pavement, driveway aprons, sidewalks, grass plots, curbing, nonregulating street signs, bounds, fences and guard rails, retaining walls, and erosion and sedimentation control devices and roadside improvement such as slopes and trees. All of these required improvements shall be installed or constructed in accordance with applicable provisions of these Rules and Regulations and as shown on approved definitive plans or as specified in the certificate of Planning Board's approval or in any covenants and agreements executed by the applicant and accepted or approved by the Board.

A.  Streets and Roadways

1.      The entire area of each street or way shall first be cleared of all stumps, brush, roots, boulders, like material and all trees not intended for preservation. Stumps and trees not intended for preservation shall be cleared and shall not be buried.  All loam and other yielding material shall be removed from the roadway area to the depth encountered and for the full width of the traveled way.  Rock and boulders shall be taken away or broken off to a depth of not less than 12" below the bottom of the subgrade. All drains, public utilities and water mains including individual service laterals shall be installed prior to any further construction of the roadway.

2.      All roadways shall be brought to a finished grade as shown on the profiles of the Definitive Plan and in accordance with the cross-section (see Plate 2) adopted by the Planning Board, and constructed in accordance with Massachusetts Highway Department Standards.  At least 18 inches of good, clean bank gravel with no stones larger than 6 inches in diameter shall be placed and compacted, followed by a layer of select gravel of at least 6 inches in thickness, free of all stone over 1 1/2 inches in diameter and free from loam or other foreign material and compacted. All gravel material used for roadway and sidewalk base shall meet the requirements of MDPW M1.03.0 Type B.

Prior to the construction of gravel base course, the developer shall employ the services of a certified materials testing laboratory for gradation testing and dry density testing (Standard AASHTO Test Designation T99 compaction test method) of gravel material to be used as roadway and sidewalk base for the purpose of evaluating the materials conformance with M1.03.0 and for determining its maximum dry density.  Said testing shall be performed at the source of the gravel material and test results shall be forwarded directly to the Planning Board and engineer for review and approval (or disapproval) prior to material delivery to the site.  Thereafter, the contractor shall employ the services of a certified materials testing laboratory to obtain in-place samples of the constructed gravel material and perform gradation testing of said samples.

One material gradation analyses of the gravel base material shall be performed for each 500 feet of roadway and sidewalk measured along the centerline of the roadway.  A minimum of one test shall be required for all roadways of length 500 feet or less.  Nuclear density testing of the constructed gravel base shall be performed at a frequency of one test per 100 feet of roadway.  The Board or its agent may require additional testing as it deems necessary.  All material test results shall include as a minimum: name, address, phone number of the testing agency; date of sampling; date of testing; laboratory certification number; location from which sample was taken (list the sample source if from the source; list roadway and Station if in-place); summary of results; and test plots.  Test results must be found acceptable by the Board and its agent prior to construction of the binder course of pavement.  The table below summarizes gravel course testing requirements as described herein.
Material Testing Requirements for Roadway and Sidewalk Gravel




Test

Massachusetts Highway Department (MHD) Reference



Test Frequency
Gradation

Section 405; M1.03.0 Type b; AASHTO T 11 and T 27

Initial sample taken from gravel source
Every 500 feet of roadway and sidewalk construction (measured along centerline of roadway)
A minimum of one test shall be required for all roadways of length 500 feet or less

Dry Density testing of source material

Standard AASHTO Test Designation T99 compaction test method C

Initial sample taken from gravel source to determine maximum dry density

Nuclear gage density testing of in place material

Section 401.60

In place every 100 feet of roadway and sidewalk construction (measured along centerline of roadway)



3.   After the roadway has been finished with the top gravel coat (4” select gravel) and inspected it shall receive the following surface treatment: The roadway shall be paved to a thickness of 3 inches measured after compaction with 2 courses of Class One Bituminous concrete pavement, Type Il consisting of a 1 inch wearing course and 2 inch binder course. (See Detail Plate 2) The aggregate shall be composed, mixed and laid hot in two courses as specified in the "Massachusetts Public Works Specifications, Section 460 for Class I Bituminous Concrete Pavement" as specifically set forth in Section 460.20 to 460.82 or as amended.

4.   After road acceptance there shall be no street cuts for five years except in the case of, in the opinion of the Planning Board, an emergency.

B.  Municipal and Utility Services

1.   Drains, sewer pipes and related equipment, such as manholes and catch basins, shall be constructed in conformity with specifications of the “Standards Specifications for Highways, Bridges, and Waterways,” Department of Public Works, Commonwealth of Massachusetts, 1967, as amended.

2.   Adequate disposal of surface water shall be provided in the following manner:

a.  Each drainage plan submitted for approval shall be accompanied by a design analysis prepared by a qualified Registered Professional Engineer. The analysis shall clearly indicate all the computations for the drain including determination of pipe size and strength, and a statement concerning the disposition of flow. If the flow is discharged to the ground surface on land not belonging to the applicant then a drainage easement over the ground subject to flow shall be obtained by the applicant, and a statement to that effect shall be included with the design analysis.

b.   A rainfall event having a reoccurrence of 25 years has been selected for design computations for drain lines.  Intensities for small areas correspond to the time of concentration for the area. A rainfall event having a frequency of once in 100 years shall be used for roadway culvert design.

c.  Runoff analysis shall be based on NRCS(SCS) methodology presented in TR55 or TR20.  Pre and postdevelopment runoff for 2, 10 and 100 year, 24hour, Type III storm events shall be compared.

d.  Drain pipe size may be calculated by using "Manning's Formula" with a "Kutter's" "n" value of .013 for concrete pipe, and .024 for corrugated metal pipe.  For culverts, the minimum size of pipe shall be 12 inches in diameter. The culverts and drains shall be large enough to pass the design storm without surcharge.

e.  All storm drains shall be reinforced concrete of adequate strength, except that, if approved by the Planning Board, bituminous coated, galvanized, corrugated metal pipe or pipe arch or other material may be used in offstreet locations.  Concrete pipe shall be in conformance to the State of Massachusetts Standard Specifications for Highways and Bridges, as amended.

f.  All pipes shall be laid on a slope so that the minimum design velocity with the pipe design shall be 3.0 feet per second. Consideration will be given to flatter slopes if adequate provisions are made for cleaning the pipes. All plans having drains with slopes which will produce pipe velocities less than 2.0 feet per second, flowing full, shall be accompanied by a letter stating the reason for the flat slope. The letter shall have a space for approval by the Planning Board or its Agent or Consultant Engineer, and the drain shall not be constructed until the letter has been approved. The maximum allowable velocity with the pipe flowing full shall be the 12 to 15 feet per second.

g.  Inlets shall have an adequate waterway opening to pass the design storm with not more than 0.2 feet of surcharge. Grates and frames shall be made of cast iron suitable for the loads that can occur either during the construction or afterward. Inlets shall be constructed either of brick and mortar with 8" thick walls, precast segmental concrete blocks not less than 6" thick mortared in place, or of precast pipe sections. Inlets shall be set on a base of either poured concrete 8" in thickness, or precast segmental base blocks not less than 4 inches in thickness. Inlets shall be used in offstreet locations and the grate frame shall be mortared in position with the rim 0.2 feet below the grade of the finished ground surface. Side openings may be used in lieu of a grate if the quantity of runoff exceeds the capacity of a grate of reasonable size as approved by the Planning Board or its Agent or Consultant Engineer. Inlets shall be 4.0 feet inside diameter and shall not be finished at the same grade as the lowest pipe invert. At inlets where the outlet pipe is larger than the inlet pipe, the crown of the outlet pipe shall be at the same elevation or lower than the crown of the inlet pipe.

h.  Catch basins shall be installed on both sides of the roadway on continuous grades at intervals not to exceed 250 feet, at low points and sags in the roadway, near the corners of the roadway at intersecting streets. Such catch basins shall have a five foot inside diameter with a four foot sump and a watertight hood, and shall be provided with curb inlets.  (See Detail Plates 3 and 3A).  Drain pipes shall extend through manholes to the point of discharge, with a manhole being required at every change in direction, slope or diameter in the drain pipe, and at every intersection of drain pipes. All catch basins shall discharge into the drain through a manhole.

i.  The pipe trench shall be excavated to the required line and grade shown on the approved plan including earth, boulders and ledge.  Trenches for storm drains shall be no wider than the outside diameter of the pipe plus 16 inches for pipes through 18 inches nominal diameter, and the outside diameter plus 24 inches for pipe larger than 18 inches. This trench width shall apply from the top of the pipe to the bottom of the trench. Above the top of the pipe the trench may be as wide as necessary to properly install the pipe. Trenches with side slopes steeper than the natural angle of repose of the soil shall be sheeted as necessary to avoid caveins and sloughing.

j.  All excavations shall be properly barricaded and lighted at night where they are close to pedestrian or vehicular traffic.  Before any pipe is placed in a newly constructed fill, the Contractor shall, as directed, place the fill 2 feet above the top of the pipe after which the pipe trench may be excavated. If any cross pipes, conduits, drains or other unforeseen obstacles are encountered in the excavation which cannot be relocated, the drain shall be redesigned to avoid the obstruction in a manner suitable to the Planning Board or its Agent or Consultant Engineer. Possible obstructions to the line shall be investigated prior to the construction of the drain in its immediate vicinity.

k.   Trenches may be excavated with a flat bottom, but the full length of the pipe, except the bell, must rest upon undisturbed soil except as hereinafter specified. Where trenches have been overexcavated, a selected earth or gravel foundation, thoroughly compacted, shall be provided for proper pipe bedding. Soil, which is considered to be unstable by the Planning Board or its Agent or Consultant Engineer, shall be removed to a depth of not less than 2 feet below the bottom of the pipe and replaced with compacted sand and gravel to the bottom of the pipe. Unstable soil or other excavated material shall be disposed of off site.

l.  Pipe shall be laid starting with the downstream end. Grade boards or other approved devices shall be provided to insure that the pipe is laid true to line and grade. Reference bench marks shall be clearly marked to enable the Inspector to quickly check the grade and invert elevations. The joints of all pipes shall be filled with mortar composed of one part Portland Cement to three parts clean sharp sand. Jute shall be required on joints of all pipes 15 inches or larger. Lime may be added up to 25 percent of the cement and enough water to make a workable mix. The downstream pipe shall be laid with groove or bell end facing upstream in the proper position, and a dab of mortar shall be placed in the bell or groove. The spigot or tongue end shall be placed in the bell or groove such that the inverts match, and the peripheral space shall be filled with stiff mortar. All mortar squeezed out on the inside of the pipe shall be removed before it sets.

m.   After the pipe has been laid and inspected, the trench shall be backfilled. The space under the pipe haunches shall be carefully filled with selected material, free from stones or frozen earth, and compacted carefully to prevent the pipe from moving. The layer of backfill up to 12 inches over the top of the pipe shall also be of selected material free from stones and frozen earth, well compacted. The remainder of the trench shall be backfilled in 12-inch layers except as noted below, and each layer shall be fully compacted in an approved manner. Under roads or other traffic areas the trench shall be backfilled in 6 inch layers with each layer compacted to the density of the surrounding soil. Pavement and base course materials removed during the excavation process shall be replaced with pavement and base course to match those removed. No old pavement shall be backfilled into trenches. When, in the opinion of the Planning Board or its Agent or Consultant Engineer, the excavation is deep enough to warrant it, temporary pavement shall be provided as directed. Trenches not in pavement shall be left in mounded condition as directed by the Planning Board or its Agent or Consultant Engineer.

n.  Security bars shall be provided at the entrance and outface of all culverts or open pipe drains.  Bars shall be constructed according to a design approved by the Planning Board or its Agent or Consultant Engineer, and the grate shall be installed in a manner approved by the Planning Board or its Agent or Consultant Engineer. A suitable drawing of the grate and method of installation shall be submitted for approval with the plans for the drains and appurtenances.

o.   Concrete or Field Stone masonry headwalls shall be provided at both ends of culverts and the discharge ends of storm drains. They shall conform to the tables on Detail Plates 4 and 4A.

p.   The discharge ends of all drains with flowing full velocities of 4 feet per second or more shall be protected with bank/apron protection of a width not less than 10 times the nominal pipe diameter from the end of the discharge pipe. The bank/apron protection for exit velocities of 10 feet per second or less shall be composed of a layer of stones 12 inches in thickness or more, placed upon a bed of sand and gravel 6 inches in thickness.  The stones shall be sized so that not less than 60 percent shall have a dimension of 12 inches of more.  The stones after being laid shall be carefully chinked by hand to make a reasonably smooth and shaped surface.  Where exit velocities are greater than 10 feet per second, the thickness of stones and the dimensions of the individual pieces shall be sized to prevent displacement by the flow. In this case, details shall be submitted to the Planning Board or its Agent or Consultant Engineer for approval. In addition, bank/apron protection will be required for all drainage channels having design flow velocities greater than five (5) feet per second and for any change in direction or intersection of drainage channels.

q.   Water pipes and related facilities such as hydrants, blowoffs and shutoff valves shall be installed within the subdivision as necessary, providing all lots on each street with adequate water supply for domestic and fire protection use. Hydrants shall be not farther than 500 feet apart. The cost for materials, labor and installation shall be borne by the Applicant.  Materials and supplies used in such installation shall conform to Water Commission specifications. Water mains shall be no less than 8 inches in diameter and shall be of larger size when required by the Board. All water pipe and facilities required by the Town Engineer including thrust blocks and curb stops shall be constructed prior to the finish grading of the roadway.

C.  Sidewalks and Bikeways

1.  All sidewalks shall be designed in conformance with conditions specified by the Architectural Access Board and the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, 42 U.S.C. §1201 et seq.   All sidewalks shall have a 5 foot minimum width.

2.   Sidewalks and bikeways shall be separated from the roadway by a strip of land loamed and seeded and may be included within or outside the road right-of-way (ROW) in accordance with Section VI. C.  If located within the street ROW, sidewalks and/or bikeways shall be located as close as possible to the outside line of the right-of-way. 

3.   Sidewalks and bikeways shall be in accordance with either specification below:
a.  Cement Concrete Sidewalks shall be 4" thick, 2,500-pound cement concrete, reinforced with No. 10, 6" x 6" mesh, and wood float finished, laid on a base of at least 8" of well compacted bank gravel. An expansion joint (3/4" open) shall be provided at least every 20'.  Dividing joints shall be scored into walk every 4'.  Base gravel material shall be in accordance with the specifications outlined above for street construction, provided that no stone shall have a dimension in excess of 2".  It shall be thoroughly compacted, using a sidewalk roller weighing at least two tons.  (See Detail Plate 5)

b.   Bituminous Concrete Sidewalk foundation shall be 8" of bank gravel as specified in (a) above (material and compaction). The wearing surface shall be laid in two courses, a 2" binder course and a 1" top course, the thickness to be measured after compaction. The material and application shall conform to the specifications for roadway surfacing. All edges of the walks shall be formed with wood screens, which are securely anchored and left in place. 

4.  The following design guidelines shall be observed during the construction of bikeways:
a.  Minimum  pavement width: 8 feet.
b.   Maximum grade: 8%.
c.  Minimum center line radius: 25 feet.
d.   Vertical curbs shall be required for changes in grade that exceed 2%.
e.   Curb cuts shall be provided at the intersection of bikeways and streets.
f.   Signs of a design approved by the Board shall clearly mark each "Bikeway."


D.  Curbs

1.   Curbing is required on both sides of all roadways and shall be one of the types specified by the Planning Board except that type VA43 granite curb shall be used in the following cases:
a.  All finished grades over 6%;
b.   All headers with transition section at each end for catch basins; and
All street intersections along turning radii and extending 6 feet tangent along each side of each roadway at the intersection.

2. Approved types of Curbing.
a.  Vertical granite curbing type VA43 (See Detail Plate 6).
b.   Sloped granite edge stone type SB (See Detail Plate 6A).
c.   Bituminous concrete berm ''Modified Cape Cod Berm" (See Detail Plate 6B).

3. Terminal Curb:  tapered terminal curb section of vertical granite curb construction having a minimum length of 4 feet and a tapered section 2 feet in length will be required as the first and last stones along each section of granite curbing and adjacent to each separately placed curb inlet.

4. The area in back of the sidewalk shall be sloped at the rate of three to one (maximum) to a point where it precisely coincides with the finished grade of abutting lots.

5. On all areas within roadway, walkway, and bikeway right-of-ways except areas not receiving surface treatment or areas requested by the Board to be left in a "natural condition" the ground shall be cleared and grubbed and at least 6 inches of an approved loam topsoil shall be applied. These areas shall be protected from erosion and seeded with an acceptable uniform, and healthy growth and until building construction has been completed.

No removal of loam from the development shall be made until a 6-inch thickness of loam shall be provided throughout the entire area of all lots and on the planting strips along the roadway.  Only such areas as roadways, driveways, building sites and areas requiring filling may be stripped of topsoil.  Areas on a lot where cut or fill is not required for construction of the buildings on that lot shall not be stripped of topsoil.  Only after the above requirements have been met may surplus loam be removed from the site.

E.  Street Lights and Signs

1. The Applicant shall be responsible for furnishing and erecting street lights at locations approved by the Planning Board and Board of Selectmen.

2. Street signs shall be erected at all intersections.  These signs shall meet the specifications established by the Board of Selectmen, and shall be erected prior to the construction of the first building on the street.  From the time of rough grading until such time as each street is accepted by the Town as a public way, the sign posts at the intersection of such street with any other street shall have affixed thereto a sign designating such street as a private way.  The lettering shall be so arranged that the word “Private” may be painted out or removed when the street is accepted by the Town as a public way. 

F.  Trees

Preservation of Existing Trees

Trees on the site, especially those over twelve (12) inches in diameter should be preserved, wherever possible. Following is a list of recommended measures for the protection of trees:
 
a. Avoid operation of heavy equipment, storage of materials, grading or filling within the tree’s natural drip line;
b. Provide supplemental irrigation to trees as needed during the summer months to insure healthy maintenance;
c. Avoid paving or vehicle parking under trees within the drip line;
d. Direct drainage from paved areas away from root zones;

Street Trees

The Applicant shall provide and plant at approximately 50 foot intervals, at least one suitable shade tree having a minimum caliper of two inches (2”) measured at chest height with a minimum branching height of seven feet (7’). The species and the location in which such trees are to be planted shall be approved by the Rutland Tree Warden, and shall be partially dependent on the size of the trees planted.  Existing trees of at least equal size that have been preserved within the specified area may be substituted to fulfill this requirement.  Generally, street trees shall be planted within the grass strip adjacent to the roadway, on the road side of the sidewalk if proposed.



Acer platanoides

Norway Maple

Acer rubrum       

Red Maple

Acer saccharum      

Sugar Maple

Fraxinus americana     

White ash

Fraxinus pennsylvanica    

Green ash

Gleditsia triacanthos inermis 

Thornless Honeylocust

Quercus palustris    

Pin Oak

Quercus robur   

English Oak

Tilia cordata 

Littleleaf Linden

Zelkova serrata 

Japanese Zelkova


If the Applicant finds it necessary to remove any tree owned by the Town, or if the Planning Board finds it necessary to have the Applicant remove any such trees, the Applicant may do so with the approval of the Tree Warden, and shall replace any and all at his own expense with new plantings of a size and species approved by the Tree Warden.  The locations for these plantings shall be designated by the Tree Warden, and shall be guaranteed by the Applicant for a period of one year.

The Applicant shall be responsible for maintenance of planted trees and replacement of those which have died or become diseased from the time of planting through one full growing season.

G.  Landscaping Requirements

In addition to tree plantings described in subsection F. above, the following additional considerations shall be provided within a subdivision plan.

Slopes and Street Intersection Plantings

All slopes that are created as part of the subdivision construction process, including street off-grading and other cut and fill areas shall be stabilized to avoid erosion.  Such slopes shall be planted with suitable, well-rooted and low growing plants.  Such plants may include perennial grasses, wildflowers, and other herbaceous plantings.  Mulches may be used where they will aid in erosion and weed control. 

Similarly, plantings shall be required adjacent to street intersections.  Such “corner” plantings may also include bushy shrubs, ornamental trees and other herbaceous planting so long as they do not obscure visibility within one hundred (100) feet of the intersection, measured from the curbs adjacent to the corner lot.

Cul-de-Sac Plantings

The central portion of a permanent dead-end street shall be vegetated. Plantings may include groundcover, shrubs and/or trees of a type acceptable to the Board, or appropriate existing vegetation, with the approval of the Board.  To allow for snow removal and storage, trees and/or shrubs shall not be planted within six (6) feet of the curb.

Grass Strips

All cleared areas of a right-of-way, not to be planted with groundcover plantings, including all disturbed areas over all culverts in drainage easements, shall be loamed with not less than six (6) inches compacted depth of good quality loam and seeded with lawn grass seed. Seeding shall be done at appropriate times of the year and in a manner to insure growth of grass. No utility poles, transformers, signs, or similar items shall be placed within the grass plot within three (3) feet of the edge of the pavement.

H.  Monuments

1. Monuments shall be installed at all way intersections, at all points of change in direction or curvature of ways and at other points where, in the opinion of the Planning Board, permanent monuments are necessary.  Such monuments shall be of concrete or granite 4 inches square by 4 feet long and shall be set 4 inches above the center line of the traveled way.  No permanent monuments shall be installed until all construction that could destroy or disturb the monuments is completed.

2. The Planning Board shall require a certificate by a Registered Land Surveyor to be obtained at the Applicant’s expense, indicating that these monuments are in place and accurately located.  The certificate is to be presented to the Consultant Engineer prior to acceptance of the road by the Town.

I.  Driveways

Driveways shall be installed in conformity with design specifications on Plate 7, Typical Driveway Detail.  Driveways aprons shall be paved within the road right-of-way to the same pavement thickness of roadway construction.

J.  Clean Up

1. Upon completion of all work in the subdivision, or when directed by the Planning Board, the Applicant shall remove from the streets and adjoining property, all temporary structures and all surplus material and such rubbish which may have accumulated during construction, and shall leave the work in a neat and orderly condition.

The stormwater system shall be cleaned by the Applicant to the satisfaction of the Planning Board prior to final release of any security or to final release from any terms of the covenant.








 
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